An Architects Guide to Proper Waterproofing Design

John A. D’Annunzio


Considerations for Selecting a Waterproofing System

When selecting a waterproofing system conservatism is the watchword. Remember, you only have the opportunity to do this once! Proper research and due diligence is required to ensure that all waterproofing issues are properly addressed. Site-specific issues and building requirements also necessitate proper consideration. There are several considerations that an architect or waterproofing designer must examine prior to the selection of a waterproofing system. Some of the considerations are:· Occupancy· Water Table· Soil Characteristics· Substrate Stability· Construction Sequence· Risk v. Cost· Ease of Application

Occupancy

Important design factors to consider are leak risk tolerance and sensitivity to humidity of an occupied space. There are certain occupied spaces where leaks can be a detriment. Leaks are intolerable in occupancies with book storage, art storage, computer rooms, electrical switchgear, and medical facilities. These types of facilities also require tight humidity control. Intrusion of air can be as detrimental as water in sensitive facilities. Medical facilities, research and testing laboratories fit within these classifications.Proper membrane design for the aforementioned facilities would require positive side waterproofing with a low vapor permeable membrane.

Water Table Level

The water table level is an important consideration that not only determines the type of waterproofing required, by code it determines if waterproofing is required. The International Building Code requires that waterproofing or damp proofing is applied on all below-grade structures where the ground water table is maintained a minimum of 6 inches below the ground slab. Accurate soil bearings – completed by a competent civil engineer – are required prior to waterproofing design. In the Northern Hemisphere the water table is usually highest after the spring thaws have saturated the ground and lowest following the summer evaporation of the surface moisture. Proper waterproofing design should be based on the maximum water table level for the site.

Soil Characteristics

Waterproofing materials are unique because they are exposed to much harsher conditions than any of the other building exterior components. Most of the exposure elements are continuously present at the waterproofing surface and do not dissipate as they do at the other exterior components. For example, water can be present in below-grade surfaces for weeks, whereas water on roof systems is to be removed within 48 hours.One element to consider is soil characteristics. Chemicals in the soil can have an adverse effect on some materials and knowledge of potential chemicals present is required for design. Chemical properties in soils can adversely affect waterproofing in various ways. Acids and alkaline in ground water can accelerate the deterioration of concrete and steel reinforcing bars. Salt in water corrodes reinforcing bars in concrete. Sulfates can have a negative reaction with Portland cement resulting in internal shearing stress that causes spalling. Other chemicals that affect waterproofing are calcium hydroxides, oils and chemicals from fertilizer. The physical properties of the soil can also affect waterproofing. Clay soils of low permeability limit underground hydrostatic pressure. The intensity and nature of hydrostatic pressure can force water into tie-rod holes, cold joints and rock pockets. Hydrostatic pressure can also turn minor imperfections into probable sources of leaks.

Substrate Stability

Waterproofing is applied on substrate surfaces to protect the substrate from structural deterioration caused by water, chemicals and soil. The applied waterproofing material must also be capable of performance if the substrate becomes unstable or minor imperfections occur. Some substrates are inherently prone to imperfection and this should be considered prior to waterproofing design.Waterproofing membrane applied over substrates that are vulnerable to cracking from any source must be elastic and capable of resealing. Cracks can occur in masonry or other waterproofed components that have multiple construction joints. Damp proofing should not be considered in these conditions.The types of soils at the site can also have an impact on substrate stability. Expansive soils and peaty soils can produce rising and settling footings that cause cracks in footings and foundation walls. All substrate openings can become potential points of moisture infiltration.

Construction Sequence

Waterproofing is applied in phases as construction of walls and plaza decks are installed. There may be extended periods of time between certain waterproofing applications and final completion. For instance, waterproofing of below-grade walls is typically done in 6- to 8-foot increments from the bottom to the top. The initial section is finished, the site is backfilled and the waterproofing applicator uses the backfill as a scaffolding to complete the next increment. This process is continued until the full wall is waterproofed. This process could continue over an extended time period because the waterproofing applicator relies on the pour schedule and backfilling operations.Installed waterproofing materials are rarely exposed to exterior elements after final application procedures are completed. The membranes are covered by soil, concrete or another type of top surfacing. However, because of the initial construction sequence, these materials may be exposed for an extended period of time. This fact must be considered in the material selection process. It is important to prevent the exposure of vulnerable materials to the elements when long delays in the schedule occur. Waterproofing materials must be capable of withstanding freezing temperatures if they are to be exposed to these conditions for more than one week. Exposure to rain and water can also be a concern. If bentonite clay is used it must be adequately covered.Membranes with a low resistance to ultraviolet radiation can deteriorate if the materials are exposed to sunlight for intervals as short as one month. If the waterproofing is applied prior to the completion of the structural elements it may prompt negative effects on the waterproofing such as deflections or other imperfections.

Risk vs. Cost

The designer should always minimize risk despite any reasonable – or unreasonable – costs. If a building owner or general contractor wants to cut costs, the waterproofing system is not the place to do so. The cost of excavation for repairs – even minor repairs – far exceeds the initial cost of the waterproofing. Remember, as a designer you only have one chance to do it right!

Ease of Application

Ease of application is a minor factor, however, it may result in better workmanship, so it should be considered. There will also be projects where access or space constraints are an issue. Application methods, particularly material adhesion methods, may be determined by the site constraints. On projects where other factors are in balance, ease of application of a material or a system can be a determining factor in material selection.

Guidelines for Proper Waterproofing Specifications


Thorough specifications are a critical component and are paramount to the success of a waterproofing project. The proper development of specifications is essential due to the complexity of the waterproofing process that occurs with the integration of several building components and trades. It is the responsibility of the architect and/or designer to ensure that all divisions of waterproofing application are addressed. The specification of materials and system application methods are important elements and should be chronicled along with excavation, substrate preparation, backfilling and sequencing of work.A thorough specification will serve as an effective communication tool for all project participants. A good specification, which encompasses the scope of work, will also serve as a valuable tool to enable the owner or owner’s representative, construction manager, applicator and inspector to effectively communicate with each other. It also serves as a communication path to the architect. The specifics of each component and divisions of responsibility should be provided in the specifications, which should be reviewed before and during the development process, in order to attain a high quality waterproofing system that meets the specific project requirements. On below-grade applications the specification should be divided into four sections that address excavation, surface preparation, waterproofing application and backfilling. MASTERSPEC or CSI format specifications address these procedures in the following divisions:Division 1 – Pre-Installation Meeting (excavation)Division 2 – BackfillDivision 3 – General Requirements (surface preparation)Division 7 – Waterproofing


Division 1 – Pre-Installation Meeting (Excavation) The intent of this section is to establish parameters of the pre-installation meetings. Typical projects may have as many as three such meetings, which serve to open the lines of communication between the project participants. Attendees should include representatives from the owner, architect, engineer, general contractor, subcontractors, material manufacturer, and the inspection agency. The specifications should define when the meetings will take place and who should attend. They should also define the guidelines for excavation, sequencing and review of the completed concrete surfaces.The purpose of these meetings is to resolve any questions or disputed areas in the specifications prior to project commencement and during the construction phase. In relationship to these issues, the specifications should clearly define the following issues: 1. The required width of the foundation excavation 2. Sequencing of concrete casting for: a. the footing b. the slab on ground c. the structural slab 3. Sequencing of the backfill operation 4. The waterproofing contractor’s review process of concrete finish. It is critical that the specifications make it clear who is responsible for concrete repair. 5. The waterproofing contractor’s review of the surface moisture requirements.

Division 2 – Backfill

Whereas Division 1 outlines the sequencing requirements of the backfill operations, Division 2 defines the technical requirements of this process. The backfilling process is a critical component to the success of a waterproofing system and it requires the appropriate attention in the specifications. Damage created by improper backfilling is the most common cause of premature waterproofing failures. Damage typically results from the use of improper fill materials, such as rocks, frozen soil and miscellaneous debris. It also occurs from punctures created by backfill equipment; i.e. loaders, bulldozers, shovels, etc. Backfilling operations have also been completed prior to the waterproofing application, leaving the area exposed to moisture infiltration. This is often the result of an overanxious or uncaring subcontractor. Proper backfill requirements listed in the specifications can eliminate these errors by providing an enforceable document. If it is determined that incorrect application materials and methods were used, then corrective remedies would be required. The most important backfill requirement is that it is completed immediately after waterproofing is applied. This is critical for two reasons: first, in vertical applications the backfill holds the membrane in place; and second it provides ultraviolet protection for the waterproofing materials, particularly for those materials that are not ultraviolet resistant. Some of the other backfill requirements that should be provided in the specifications include the following:1. Require that the compaction of the backfill is in accordance with ASTM D 1557 “Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort”2. Specify single-graded aggregate that is not less than ¾ inch in size3. Specify filter fabric, porous backfill and subsurface drains4. Limit backfill lifts to a maximum of 12-inch heights5. Specify field inspection of the backfill operation to ensure compliance and that no damage to the waterproofing occurs.

Division 3 – General Requirements

A successful waterproofing application is dependent on proper substrate preparation. Preparation requirements vary by the type of material used and application methods. It is important that the manufacturer’s requirements for substrate preparation are followed. In this regard, specify that the concrete surfaces and finishes meet the manufacturer’s requirements. The designer should specify proper substrate preparation in the concrete division of the specifications. Typically, separate trades are responsible for concrete placement and waterproofing application and this can create confusion and problems, particularly in what is considered proper concrete preparation and whose responsibility it is to perform the repairs required for the waterproofing application. The designer can eliminate these issues by providing language stating that concrete placement and repair be performed in accordance with ASTM D 5925. This is an excellent reference guide that contains a list of remediation measures for identifying and repairing fins, bug holes, form kick-outs and similar surfaces that are unsuitable for the application of waterproofing. Reference to this standard in the Concrete Section and Waterproofing Section will eliminate potential problems during the project. The designer should also require that the waterproofing contractor approve the surface in writing prior to installation. Other preparation items to be listed in the specifications include:1. Do not permit the use of concrete curing compounds, certain form release agents, or concrete admixtures that are not approved by the waterproofing manufacturer.2. Specify schedule of concrete pours to provide for proper curing time prior to waterproofing application.3. Specify concrete surface quality and finishes (float, steel trowel) that meet the manufacturer’s requirements.4. Require the concrete contractor to exercise care when pouring concrete over waterproofed systems. Provide that there shall be notification of any damage to the waterproofing system given to the waterproofing applicator prior to the concrete pour or covering.5. Specify water stops6. Specify cement cants and chamfered corners if required7. Any solvent-bearing concrete sealer should only be specified and applied after approval in writing by the waterproofing system manufacturer. A solvent-bearing sealer applied in normally specified quantities could migrate through the joints of the wear surface, changing the viscosity of the waterproofing system.

Division 7 – Waterproofing

Part 1 of the waterproofing section should include standard language pertaining to general requirements. These requirements would include submittals, manufacturer requirements, application and weather conditions required for application and scheduling of waterproofing and backfilling. This section should also specify the application and materials required for temporary protection of the waterproofing while other trades are working in the area.Part 2 of this section should list the products required for the waterproofing systems. A brief description should be provided for all products listing information applicable to the application – i.e. size, type, thickness, psi, etc. Reference the ASTM number for all products.Asphaltic- Applied Membranes ASTM C 836In reference to extruded polystyrene, it is recommended that Type VII EPS with a minimum of 60-psi compressive strength is used on framed slabs under a wearing surface and Type I EPS as a protection layer on vertical surfaces.Specify the following accessory materials:Protection BoardDrainage PanelsTermination BarsFastenersFilter Cloths under concrete slabsPart 3 of this section should reference the surface conditions required for waterproofing applications. Surface preparation and acceptable moisture conditions should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. Test methods to determine existing surface moisture should be specified. The application section should include the following items:1. Specify the installation of the flashing and reinforcing prior to the membrane.2. Specify the type of flashings, reinforcing materials and possible flashing termination fixtures to be used when detailing flashings at all openings, projections, and other terminations appropriate to the methods and systems specified.3. Specify appropriate means for anticipated substrate movement. This can be accomplished through appropriately designed and placed control and expansion joints.4. Follow the manufacturer’s guide specifications and details for applicable materials and application methods.5. Specify that the manufacturer provide approvals as to the intended use of the system and details. This can be in the form of a written statement of “suitability of use.”6. Establish the manufacturer’s limitations and requirements during application for weather conditions such as temperature, rain, snow and wind.7. Specify immediate installation of protection board so there is no damage to the system from other trades. Use the manufacturer’s requirements as to the type of placement. Generally accepted protective cover is obtained by means of:a. Horizontal Protection: asphalt/organic felt protection boards: 1/8 to ¼ inch thick – depending on required protection.b. Vertical Protection: polystyrene bead board with minimum of 1 pound density and 1 inch thick.8. Specify subsurface and below-grade pre-fabricated drainage systems in accordance with the manufacturer’s approval and requirements. Some manufacturers neither require nor approve these systems. A properly sloped concrete surface – ¼-inch per foot or more – will typically remove 95% of all water to the drains.9. Drain configurations and installation elevations should be properly detailed and approved by the waterproofing manufacturer.10. Require a flood test on all horizontal applications for a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of 72 hours using no more than 2 inches of water. Tests are typically performed prior to application of the protection board for easy access to system repairs.

Components of the Waterproofing System

Waterproofing is the formation of an impervious barrier that is designed to prevent water from entering or exiting from various sections of the building structure. The waterproofing system is a series of integral components that function in unison to prevent moisture intrusion into the facility. The system configuration is generally similar in all waterproofing applications. The material components that are common to all types of waterproofing applications are structural substrate, flashing, membrane and insulation.

Plaza Deck (Horizontal) Waterproofing

Horizontal applications – below grade or on grade – typically consist of the following component configuration:· Structural Deck· Flashing· Membrane· Protection Board· Drainage – surface drains· Insulation· Wear Surface

Below-Grade (Vertical) Waterproofing

The typical system configuration for below-grade vertical applications is:· Structural substrate· Flashing· Membrane· Insulation· Drainage Course· Backfill

Mud Mats

Below-grade waterproofing typically begins on-grade at the mud mat. A mud mat is an un-reinforced concrete slab or gravel bed that is applied under the foundation. The intent of the mud mat is to prevent groundwater from entering the slab surface. Buildings constructed at sites with high water tables should always include a mud mat. These slabs are used as reasonably stable, all-weather, assembly platforms to receive the waterproofing for the underside of the wear slab as well as to support, with little or no deflection, the rebar chairs and re-bars during installation of the reinforced wear slab. Such non-reinforced ground slabs do take on moisture and water, which will cause the disbanding of any waterproofing system from these ground slabs whether it is an asphaltic- or reinforced membrane. This is a point that should be constantly considered when selecting protective materials and systems.Membrane installation at the mud mat is based on the substrate. Over concrete slabs the membrane should be fully adhered. At gravel beds, adhesion is not possible, so the bottom membrane may be loose laid with adhered joints. If an additional membrane is required, it should be adhered over the bottom membrane. The mud mat waterproofing should project 9 to 12 inches beyond the foundation so that the vertical membrane can be turned out over the exposed toe of the horizontal surface.

Substrate

Waterproofing can be applied over various substrates such as concrete, cement fiberboards, gypsum boards or wood. Concrete provides the best substrate material for waterproofing systems. The preferable concrete substrate is a cast-in-place monolithic structural concrete slab. This is more suitable than pre-cast concrete because pre-cast concrete requires a nominal 2-inch-thick topping to provide a smooth, continuous top surface to eliminate the control joints. Control joints are susceptible to openings from the bearing ends of the pre-cast structural members and would require expansion joints to accommodate movement between the slabs.

Flashing

Waterproofing flashing application is applied prior to membrane application. This is in contrast to roof systems in which the membrane is applied prior to the flashing. Flashing is applied at internal and external corners, penetrations, cold joints, expansion joints, changes in elevations and all vertical surfaces. The flashing material must be approved by the membrane manufacturer and applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. An important characteristic of flashings is the reinforcement material. Lack of proper flashing reinforcement has contributed to many premature failures. Cold joints at the wall/footer, wall/structural floor slab junctures are particularly critical. Use of compatible fabrics or felts for flashing reinforcements should always be required at the vertical and horizontal interior and exterior corners for both cast-in-place concrete and concrete masonry units (CMU) whether at plaster-type wall bracings or at the corner changes in the direction of the walls themselves.

Membrane

Waterproofing should be applied over all exposed substrate surfaces, particularly concrete. Membrane under pressure slabs on the ground can extend under the foundation walls and over the pile caps. Foundation waterproofing must extend above grade a minimum of 8 inches. The waterproofing materials must be covered with a metal flashing, masonry or stucco, and it should be terminated above grade. This is required because most waterproofing materials are not ultraviolet-resistant and must be covered.To be effective, waterproofing should consist of a total or continuous envelope of the below-grade structure, which provides a complete enclosure of all areas that are subjected to hydrostatic pressure and/or chemical pollutants. Interruptions at walls that are not protected with through-wall flashings or other continuations of the waterproofing system will nullify a waterproofing barrier rendering it ineffective.

Insulation

Insulation applied in waterproofing systems serves two fundamental purposes: thermal resistance and membrane protection. Insulation in waterproofing systems should always be applied above the membrane. In both vertical and horizontal applications, insulation protects the membrane from backfill and construction traffic when it is applied over the membrane. Waterproofing systems are exposed to higher traffic loads than roof systems and the insulation serves as further protection with its high compressive strength. Insulation’s thermal resistance is much greater than aggregate or earth fill on heated and air-conditioned occupied spaces. Even in the coldest climates the insulation – when applied above the membrane – will maintain the membrane temperature above the dew point eliminating condensation. Because of the placement of the insulation in a waterproofing system there is only one insulation choice: extruded polystyrene board. EPS or bead board is the only commercially available insulation that provides both a high compressive strength (60 psi) and moisture resistance. Moisture resistance is required because the insulation is not protected and it is exposed to continual moisture infiltration. Studies have indicated that EPS retains approximately 80% of its dry thermal resistance in continually wet conditions. Insulation should be set in a fully adhered application on vertical surfaces. Insulation application on horizontal surfaces should be in accordance with the waterproofing system manufacturer’s requirements.

Protection Board

Protection boards are required to shield the membrane from susceptible damage created by other trades and ultra-violet radiation. Since the waterproofing membrane is the first component completed it is not unlikely that traffic from other trades, (i.e. mechanical, plumbing, concrete, masonry, etc.), will create havoc on the completed membrane from equipment, machinery, scaffolding, or dropped tools. The protection board should be applied prior to exposure of other trades immediately after the flood testing of the waterproofing membrane is completed. Any repairs required after the flood testing is completed should be performed prior to the application of the protection board.The most common type of protection board is an asphalt-core, laminated panel that comes in sizes of 1/16-, 1/8-, or ¼-inch thicknesses. This panel is faced with polyethylene film on one side that is applied to prevent the panel from sticking during transport and storage. Some manufacturers also promote the use of a minimum 6-inch-thick polyethylene film as a protection layer. The reasoning is that membrane deficiencies are easier to detect and repair with the nominal protection layer. A general word of caution is that the minimal protection layer is more susceptible to damage from equipment, machinery and scaffolding.

Drainage – Vertical Applications

Below-grade waterproofing is subjected to water transmission from two sources – surface water and groundwater. Proper control and drainage of these water sources is required for successful waterproofing system performance. Sources of surface water include rain, melting snow and sprinklers. The most effective form of controlling surface water is by directing it away from the structure. This can be achieved through sloping of the landscape and by installing roof gutters and downspouts that divert water away from the structure. Sprinklers that are positioned towards the structure should also be adjusted away from the structure. Moisture infiltration in above-grade components (masonry, siding, etc.) could work its way down and create leaks in below-grade areas. The control of groundwater is more complicated because groundwater levels fluctuate throughout the year. In the Northern Hemisphere groundwater levels are typically at their highest levels in the spring after winter thaws and at their lowest levels in dry summer conditions. Groundwater levels usually rise from heavy rain accumulations and from natural capillary action of the soil. The waterproofing membrane must be designed and applied to accommodate groundwater when it is at the highest level, even if this is a temporary or infrequent condition. Proper below-grade waterproofing design must include a system for collecting, draining, and discharging groundwater away from the structure. The most effective way to properly collect and discharge groundwater is through the use of foundation drains. Foundation drains can be field-constructed drainage systems or prefabricated soil drainage systems. Field-constructed drainage systems consist of a perforated pipe (typically PVC) that is set in a bed of gravel at the bottom of the foundation. The perforation in the pipe is applied downward to allow the water to flow into the gravel bed. A drainpipe is installed next to the structure slightly above the bottom of the foundation to prevent the soil under the foundation from washing away. The pipe is set to slope the water towards drain fields, bare soil or sump pits. A layer of coarse gravel is set around the drainage pipe for additional water accumulation. In some cases, meshes and/or mats can be applied over the top gravel layer to prevent soil buildup from interfering with water flow to the drainage system. The biggest disadvantage with these systems is that they rely on proper field construction (which is not always done properly) and over time they become clogged with dirt, soil and contaminants.Due to unreliability of the older field-constructed methods, manufacturers have developed prefabricated drainage systems that are inexpensive and effective in controlling groundwater on all types of construction projects. Prefabricated drainage systems are made from a variety of plastic composite formulations (polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene) that combine specially designed drainage cores with attached geotextile fabrics. Installation requirements include trenching, setting the pipe to the desired slope and backfilling. The materials come in widths up to 36 inches and lengths up to 500 feet. These products are puncture-resistant and are not usually damaged in backfilling operations. Most of the systems have elongation capabilities and can accommodate movement after installation.The most important requirement of the backfilling operation is that the backfill material be compacted in layers. This is best achieved with the proper mechanical equipment designed for this purpose. The type of geotextile material that is used is based on the soil conditions. The geotextile materials required for soil conditions are as follows:· High clay content: nonwoven needle punched geotextile.· Sandy soils: woven materials with high permeability· High silt content: small opening geotextiles

Drainage – Horizontal Applications

Drainage components for a plaza deck with a wearing surface typically include: (from the substrate up)· Membrane with Protection Board· Filter Fabric · Pea Gravel or Geotextile Mat · Insulation· Wear Surface Drainage components for a plaza deck with earth-covered topping typically include: (from the substrate up)· Membrane with Protection Board· Filter Fabric · Pea Gravel or Geotextile Mat· Insulation· Polyethylene Sheet· Pea Gravel· Filter Sheet· Topping Drainage systems on horizontal applications should be comprised of all components from the wearing surface down to the membrane. Horizontal drainage is required at two levels: the wear surface and the membrane level. At the wear surface, drainage is required to minimize saturation that may occur from disintegration during freeze-thaw cycling. At the membrane level, drainage is required to accommodate:· Hydrostatic pressure from accumulated drain water· Freeze-thaw cycling of trapped water· Reduction of the insulation’s thermal resistance Proper drainage can be achieved by adequately sloping the horizontal substrate a minimum of 1% to 2% to allow proper flow to the drains. The drainage course medium is either gravel or plastic drainage panels. Drainage is usually accomplished by employing a multi-level drain component. In this configuration, strainers are applied at the wear surface to accommodate flow from moisture that enters the composition. This design allows for the drainage course to be applied between the membrane and the insulation, reducing condensation above the membrane in cold weather climates (snow melt off) without impairing drainage. At the wear surface, drainage is typically accomplished by internal drains through one of two methods: (1) an open-jointed system or (2) a closed-joint system. An open-jointed system filters the water down to the substrate drains through openings in the wear surface. A closed-joint system is sloped to the surface drains through closures in the wear surface from mortar or sealant joints. Earth-covered surfaces require external perimeter drainage due to clogging associated with internal drains from dirt, sot and vegetation. Because there is a greater potential for clogging of the drains in these surfaces from soil particles that block the gravity-induced flow of water, it is recommended that two drainage courses are applied. One drainage course should be applied above the insulation and one drainage course should be applied below the insulation. Drainage courses can be assembled from traditional stone aggregate such as pea gravel or from fabricated drainage composites that are covered with synthetic geotextile materials. Geotextile materials are made with polypropylene, polyester, or nylon fabrics that are manufactured to specific permeability ranges. The geotextiles can be used in earth-covered surfaces to resist rot intrusion.


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John A. D’Annunzio Bio

John A. D’Annunzio has over thirty year’s-experience in roofing and waterproofing consulting and has completed projects for Schools and Universities, States and Municipalities, and Fortune 500 companies throughout the world. He is president of Paragon Roofing Technology, Inc. – a building exterior consulting and testing firm that he founded in 1991. Mr. D’Annunzio is experienced in all facets of roofing, waterproofing and building exterior consulting including forensics and evaluation of in-place roofing, waterproofing and exterior building systems on all types of structures, analyzing roofing for latent moisture using infrared thermography, nuclear, and capacitance thermalization, identifying and testing roofing materials on certified laboratory equipment in accordance with ASTM standards, development roofing/waterproofing restoration and roofing/waterproofing replacement project manuals and construction details, coordinating project bidding, administrating roofing and waterproofing contracts, facilitating progress meetings, monitoring roofing/waterproofing applications, participating in peer review of contract documents, shop drawings, CADD drawings, and submittals; and providing expert testimony in dispute resolution cases. Proficient in complete exterior building forensics. Projects have been completed throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America and Europe.


Mr. D’Annunzio has written five books about roofing/waterproofing and is a technical details columnist for Roofing Contractor magazine and the Editorial Director of Building Envelope magazine. He has written over 100 published articles in construction trade magazines and has conducted extensive research in material technology, the results of which have been reported at numerous international and national symposiums and conferences. He has been a featured speaker at the International Roofing and Waterproofing Conference and the National Roofing Contractors Association Conference. Mr. D’Annunzio is accredited by AIA and frequently conducts seminars related to waterproofing technology.

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